Sometimes, a book comes along that illuminates a subject far removed from its ostensible topic. THE LOST APPLE is such a book. Subtitled "Operation Pedro Pan, Cuban Children in the U.S., and the Promise of a Better Future," THE LOST APPLE is a detailed examination of the flood of Cuban children, over 14,000 strong, who were shipped to the USA for "safe-keeping" after the Castro Revolution changed the balance of power on that Caribbean island. The author was one of these children, and is now a political science professor at DePaul University. She has spent the last decade researching this incident, which involved the largest transfer of minors in the Western Hemisphere, by contacting other Pedro Pan kids now grown up, by interviewing Pedro Pan organizers, and by seeking however much of the written record that is publicly available.
When Castro took power in 1959, the Cuban middle class became divided.
Many knew of the corruption that had attended the previous Batista regime,
but then again many had benefited from it. Many were sympathetic
to Castro's stated aims, but also knew his administration would mean a
lessening of U.S. corporate involvement in Cuba, and an end to their privileged
positions and status. A rumor started circulating that Castro intended
to take children away from their parents and make them wards of the state,
the better to indoctrinate these ninos and ninas with Castroism.
Pedro Pan was a reaction to this. Better to send children to the
USA where relatives or Cuban Americans could care for them until the threat
to private family parenting
Fans of Fidel charged that Pedro Pan was a CIA plot. It would
deprive Castro of many promising youngsters and slander the aims of La
Revolucion. Anti-Castro Cubans and Cuban Americans positioned Pedro
Pan as a grand humanitarian gesture, in the tradition of the kindertransport
in Europe during World War II. To Torres's credit, she refuses to
get caught up in either partisan camp. She presents the evidence
for both views. She documents the Jacobin nature of Castro's upheaval
and mourns family friends who were imprisoned or disappeared. But
she also tracks enough of the 14,000 to raise some disturbing questions.
Some of these powerless children were abused by the very people responsible
for their welfare. And even more
felt a profound dislocation from the land of their birth, a dislocation that still haunts many decades afterwards.
Torres went back to Cuba. She visited elderly people in Miami and elsewhere who had Pedro Pan institutional memory. She even sued the CIA in a vain attempt to get them to disgorge their records. She effectively demonstrates that no side has "clean hands" in this struggle, where the ultimate victims were those too young to realize what was happening to them.
So why did I open this review with a statement that THE LOST APPLE illuminates a subject beyond its seeming scope? Because of the wealth of detail that Torres adduces suggesting covert U.S. intelligence involvement in Pedro Pan. The CIA had the power to grant visas and used this power to create maximum disruption for the new Cuban government. The CIA had money it could use to encourage the policies it favored. The CIA was way more involved in destabilizing Cuba than it ever let on, yet refused to admit this to the American taxpayers who funded their operations. America criticizes other countries for using the weak or the young as political pawns, but stoops to the same hypocritical behavior when this serves its interests. American intelligence may well have brought us to the brink of nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 by its officious intermeddling in Cuba before Castro declared his allegiance to communism and the USSR. THE LOST APPLE does not prove this audacious statement, but it adds one more set of circumstances that, in total, allow this chilling inference to be made.
Dialogue on favorite books with Deane Rink before and during his latest trek to Antarctica, with a note from Bill Ransom and a digression about Frank Herbert (a.k.a Bookbabble 101) -- a very long and rapidly growing document:
A library for the price of a book.
The Middle East -- Context for Conflict: Iraq, Iran, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the Persian Gulf States. Historical background and context for understanding today's news. This CD contains the full text of 10 "Country Studies" published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Each country study is presented as a single document, in plain text form -- easy to read, to print, and to search (rather than as a collection of over 100 separate documents for each book). The tables in the appendix of each book are presented as html documents. In addition, we include: The 2003 edition of the CIA World Factbook, an interlinked set of hundreds of HTML documents, with detailed up-to-date reference information on every country in the world, with images of maps and flags; and some classic works of history, literature, and religion, including The Koran and books on the traditions of Judaism, all in plain text form. Complete table of contents Free sample: Iraq, a Country Study.
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