Family of Charlemagne (Carolingian Family) 

Branching from Judith of Flanders  (generation 40)

The line Seltzer-Estes-Bates-Fleming-Graham-Keith-Gordon/Seton-Stewart-Beaufort/Plantagenet-Holland-Plantagenet-Normandy-Flanders-Charlemagne
55 generations back to about 350 in Rome

Includes Kings Henry II to Edward I of England (Plantagenet);  Kings William I the Conqueror and Henry I (Normandy); Holy Roman Emperors Charles the Bald, Louis the Pious, and Charlemagne; Charles Martel who won the Battle of Tours in 732;  King James I of Scotland; King Robert II of France

Introduction about "ancestor surfing" (using Wikipedia to help track your ancestors)
Links from names go to Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org or The Peerage www.thepeerage.com

1 Adela Rose Seltzer b. Nov. 9, 2007 

1 Lila Pearl Seltzer b. May 27, 2010

daughter of 

2 Robert Richard Hartley Seltzer b. July 29, 1975 md.  Aug. 10, 2002 in Boston, MA Stacey Denenberg b. July 18, 1976
2 Heather Katherine Hartley Seltzer b. August 13, 1977
2 Michael Richard Hartley Seltzer b. June 14, 1980
2 Timothy Richard Hartley Seltzer b. Oct. 5, 1989 

children of 

3 Richard Warren Seltzer, Jr. b. Feb. 23, 1946, md. July 28, 1973 in Boston, MA Barbara Hartley b. Feb. 20, 1950 

Richard = son of 

4 Helen Estes b. Jan. 31, 1920 md. June 5, 1944 in Philadelphia, PA Richard Warren Seltzer, Sr. b. June 5, 1923 

Helen = daughter of 

5 Smith William Estes  ( June 17, 1881 - Dec. 20, 1943) md. in Philadelphia, PA  1905 May Griffith (1883-1930) 

Smith = son of 

6 Louis Powhatan Estes (Nov. 22, 1849 - Sept. 6, 1902) md. Oct. 30, 1875 Lily Yates Moore (May 13, 1853 - March 8, 1929) (daughter of S.W. Moore and Mary Yates) 

Louis = son of 

7 Albert Monroe Estes (Nov. 19, 1804 in Bedford County, VA - Dec. 22, 1863 in Haywood County, TN) md. Nov. 17, 1848 Mildred Colman (daughter of Dr. Benjamin Colman and Mildred Wharton of New Jersey) (c. 1823- Nov. 30, 1849) 

Albert = son of 

8 Sarah Langhorne Bates (1781- 1825 near Brownsville, Haywood County, TN)  md. Oct. 13, 1801 in Chesterfield County, VA Joel Estes (1780-1833) (son of Benjamin Estes and Cecelia Rebecca Thorpe) 

Sarah = daughter of 

9 Daniel Bates (July 6, 1756 - c. 1801) md. May 21, 1776in Chesterfield County, VA  Elizabeth Cary Bell ( b. about 1758 in Virginia, d. 1825 in Kentucky) daughter of David Bell and Judith Cary 

Daniel = son of 

10 James Bates (March 7, 1721 - Nov. 9, 1786) md. Nov. 11, 1746 in Goochland County, St. James Wortham parish, VA Winnifred Grymes or Grimes or Hix (b. Jan. 18, 1729 in Goochland) 

James = son of 

11 Susannah Tarleton Fleming md. about 1709 John Bates (1685-1723) 

Susannah = daughter of 

12 Charles Fleming (b. 1667) (of New Kent County, VA) md. Susannah Tarleton (d. 1687) (daughter of Stephen Tarleton) 

According to "My Ancestors and Relatives": "Colonel Charles was born on December 10th, 1659 in Of Charles Parish, York Co., Va.  Colonel Charles' father was John FLEMMING and his mother was Mrs. Mercy Or Mary FLEMING.  His paternal grandparents were Captain Alexander FLEMING and Elizabeth (Elspet) ANDERSON. He had four brothers and a sister, named William, Alexander, John, Tarleton and Lydia.  He died at the age of 57 on October 7th, 1717 in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent, Va.

"Susanna was born in Of St. Peter's Parish, New Kent, Va.  Susanna's father was Stephen TARLETON and her mother is Susanna. She had a sister named Judith.  She died after October 7th, 1717 in St.peters Parish, New Kent. 

"Colonel Charles and Susanna were married in a religious ceremony in New Kent, Virginia.  They had two sons and eight daughters, named Colonel John, Tarleton, Susannah, Elizabeth, Judith, Ursula, Anne, Grace, Anne and Sarah. 

Charles = son of 

13 John Fleming (b. 1627 Cumbarnauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland d. April 27, 1686 in New Kent County, VA, St. Peter's Parish Register) 

Cary-Estes Genealogy p. 86 indicates that according to "Fleming Family" by Lyon G. Tyler, William and MaryQuarterly Vol. 12, 1093, pp. 45-47, "I think he was the father of Charles Fleming who md. Susannah ___.  She was probably a daughter of Stephen Tarleton."  John Fleming, 493 acres in New Kent County on south side of Yorke River 2 march 1661 per page 397 Parent Book No. 4. 

According to "My Ancestors and Relatives": "John was born in 1627 in Cumbarnauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland.  John's father was Captain Alexander FLEMING and his mother was Elizabeth (Elspet) ANDERSON.  His paternal grandparents were John FLEMING and Margaret LIVINGSTON; his maternal grandparents are William ANDERSON and MRS. ANDERSON. He had a brother and two sisters, named John, Elizabeth and Alexia.  He died at the age of 59 on April 27th, 1686 in Charles Parish, York Co., Virginia.  His burial was on April 30th, 1686 in St. Peter's Parish, New Kent, Va.

"Mrs. Mercy or Mary was born about 1637 in Of Charles Parish, York Co., Va.  She died in , New Kent, Va. 

"John and Mrs. Mercy or Mary were married in a religious ceremony in , , , England.  They had five sons and a daughter, named Colonel Charles, William, Alexander, John, Tarleton and Lydia." 

John = son of 

14 Alexander Fleming (b. 1612 Cumbernauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland d. Dec. 30, 1668 Rappahannock Co., VA) md. Elizabeth (AKA Elspet) Anderson (b. 1614, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland d. Oct. 6, 1656 Rappahannock Co., VA) 

According to "My Ancestors and Relatives": "Captain Alexander was born about 1612 in Cumbernauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland.  Captain Alexander's father was John FLEMING and his mother was Margaret LIVINGSTON.  His paternal grandparents were John 1St Earl Wigton FLEMING and Lillias Lilias GRAHAM; his maternal grandfather was Alexander LIVINGSTON and his maternal grandmother is Eleanor Or Helen HAY. He had two brothers and six sisters, named John, William, Eleanor, Ann, Jean, Lilias, Helen and Margaret.  He died on December 30th, 1668 in , Rappahannock Co., Va.

"Elizabeth (Elspet) was born about 1614 in Of Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.  Elizabeth (Elspet)'s father is William ANDERSON and her mother is MRS. ANDERSON.  Her paternal grandfather is John ANDERSON.  She was an only child.  She died on October 6th, 1656 in , Rappahannock Co., Va. 

"Captain Alexander and Elizabeth (Elspet) were married in a religious ceremony about 1632 in Scotland.  They had two sons and two daughters, named John, John, Elizabeth and Alexia." 

Alexander = son of 

15 John Fleming (b. Dec. 9, 1589 Kincardine, Perth, Scotland d. May 7 1650 Cumbernauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland) md. Margaret Livingston (b. about 1587 Callendar, Stirlingshire, Scotland d. 1634) (Her line)

According to "My Ancestors and Relatives": "John was born on December 9th, 1589 in Kincardine, Perth, Scot. and his baptism took place on December 9th, 1589 in Kincardine, Perthshire, Scotland.  John's father was John 1St Earl Wigton FLEMING and his mother was Lillias Lilias GRAHAM.  His paternal grandparents were John Fleming EARL and Elizabeth ROSS; his maternal grandfather is John GRAHAM and his maternal grandmother was Jean DRUMMOND. He had four brothers and eight sisters, named James, Alexander, FLEMING, Malcolm, Jean, Jean, Anne, Margaret, Sarah, Lillias, Mary and Rachel.  He died at the age of 60 on May 7th, 1650 in Cumbernauld, Lanarkshire, Scotland.  His burial was in Scotland.

"Margaret was born about 1587 in Of, Callendar, Stirlingshire, Scotland.  Margaret's father was Alexander LIVINGSTON and her mother is Eleanor Or Helen HAY.  Her paternal grandfather was William LIVINGSTONE and her paternal grandmother is Agnes FLEMING. She had three brothers and a sister, named Alexander, John, James and Anna.  She died in  1634. 

"John and Margaret were married in a religious ceremony on February 20th, 1609 in Scotland.  They had three sons and six daughters, named John, Captain Alexander, William, Eleanor, Ann, Jean, Lilias, Helen and Margaret. 

John = son of 

16 Lilias Graham md. Lord John Fleming (1567-1619) 6th Lord Fleming,  first Earl of Wigton in Scotland from 1606 [His line]

"Biggar and the House of Fleming" by William Hunter, F.S.a. Scot. Pages 551-552, 557:
"Lord Fleming married Lady Lilias Graham, a daughter of John, Earl of Montrose.  Her ladyship was distinguished for her piety and devotion and her zealous efforts to promote the principles of the Reformation.  Livingstone, in his 'Characterisitcs' says of her, 'When I was a child I have often seen her at my father's at the preachings and communions.  While dressing she read the Bible, and every day at that time shed more tears (said one) than ever I did in my life.'" 

"The Earl died in April 1619 leaving three sons and five daughters and was succeeded by his eldes son John who warmly embraced his mother's ecclesiastical opinions and was as zealous of the cause of Presbyterianism as his forefathers had been in the maintenance of Popery. 

"He married Margaret, daughter of Alexander Livingstone, first Earl of Linlithgow, a lady of amiable disposition and great piety who entered cordially into the religious views and schemes of her husband.  They not only attended the ministrations of the settled Protestant clergy, but for some time maintained a chaplain of their own family." (page 552)
William and Mary Quarterly, Volume XII (1903) pp. 45-47 by Lyon G. Tyler vies the names of two sons, John and Charles.  "While his second son, Sir Thomas Fleming, is said to have emigrated to the Virginia colony and became the progenitor of the Virginia branch of the family.  Mr. Brock states ('Richmond Standard,' Feb. 7, 1880) that he married Miss Tarleton and had Tartleton, John and Charles.  Mr. Brock's information it is believed, is derived from family tradition.  There is, nevertheless, no mention as far as I have been able to ascertian in the records of Virginia, of any Sir Thomas Fleming.  The earliest perosn of the name was John fleming, who I am inclined to believe was the emigrant". (Lyon G. Tyler)Lilias = daughter of

[Cary-Estes Genealogy pp. 85-87] 

Lilias = daughter of 

17 John Graham, third Earl of Montrose (1548- Nov. 9, 1608), Chancellor of the University of St. Andrews 1599-1604  md.  Joan Drummond [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "John Graham, 3rd Earl of Montrose (1548 – 9 November 1608) was a Scottish peer and Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from 1599 to 1604.
He was a natural great-grandson of King James IV of Scotland, his maternal grandmother, Janet Fleming, being a royal bastard." 

According to Cary-Estes Genealogy p. 85: Joan "dau. of David Drummond, Second and Lord, and Lilias Ruthven; son of Walter Drummond; son of William Drummond and Isabel Campbell, dau. of Colin Campbell, Earl of Argyle; son of Sir John Drummond and Eliza Lindsey." [Her line]

John = son of 

18 Robert Graham, Master of Montrose (d. before 1584)  md. Margaret Fleming (d. after Aug. 15, 1584) [Her line]

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Robert Graham md. Margaret Fleming, d. 1547 

According to thePeerage.com: "Robert Graham, Master of Montrose was the son of William Graham, 2nd Earl of Montrose and Lady Janet Keith. He died on 10 September 1547 at Pinkie, Scotland. Robert Graham, Master of Montrose was styled as Master of Montrose." 

Robert = son of 

19  Lady Janet Keith md. Dec. 1515 William Graham, second Earl of Montrose (1492-1571)[His line]

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Jane Keith md. William Graham, Second Earl of Montrose] 

According to thepeerage.com: "William Graham, 2nd Earl of Montrose was the son of William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose and Annabella Drummond. He married Lady Janet Keith, daughter of William Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal and Lady Elizabeth Gordon, in December 1515.  William Graham, 2nd Earl of Montrose gained the title of 2nd Earl of Montrose." 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Jane Keith md. William Graham, Second Earl of Montrose]

Janet = daughter of 

20 Lady Elizabeth or Eliza Gordon md. William Keith 2nd Earl Marischal [His line]

According to thepeerage.com: "William Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal was the son of Sir William de Keith, 1st Earl Marischal. He married Lady Elizabeth Gordon, daughter of George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly and Annabella Stewart, in 1482. He died in 1530.
William Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal gained the title of 2nd Earl Marischal, of Scotland." 

According to thepeerage.com: "Lady Elizabeth Gordon was the daughter of George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly and Annabella Stewart. She married William Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal, son of Sir William de Keith, 1st Earl Marischal, in 1482." 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Eliza Gordon md. William Keith]

Elizabeth = daughter of 

21 Annabella Stewart (1433-1471) md. George Gordon, Earl of Huntly (before 1455-1501), Chancellor of Scotland (1498-1501) [His line]

According to thepeerage.com: " Annabella Stewart was the daughter of James I Stewart, King of Scotland and Lady Joan Beaufort. She married, firstly, Luigi di Savoia, Conte di Savoia, son of Luigi I, Duca di Savoia and Anne de Lusignan, on 14 December 1447 at Stirling Castle, Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland.1 She and Luigi di Savoia, Conte di Savoia were divorced in 1458.1 She married, secondly, George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly, son of Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly and Elizabeth Crichton, before 10 March 1459/60.1 She and George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly were divorced on 24 July 1471 on the grounds of consanguinity. Annabella Stewart was also known as Jean Stewart. From before 10 March 1459/60, her married name became Gordon." 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Annabelle md. George Gordon, Earl of Huntly]

Annabella = daughter of 

22 Joan Beaufort (1404-1445) md. 1424 King James I of Scotland (Stewart) (1394-1437) [His line]

According to Wikipedia: "Joan Beaufort (c. 1404 - 15 July 1445), was Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Scotland from 1424 to 1437, being married to James I of Scotland.
She was a daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Margaret Holland. Her paternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and his mistress and later third wife Katherine Swynford. Her maternal grandparents were Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent and Alice Fitzalan. Alice was a daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster. On 2 February 1424 at Southwark Cathedral, Joan married James I, shortly before he was formally crowned. They were feasted at Winchester Palace that year by her uncle Henry Cardinal Beaufort. She is said to have been the inspiration of James's famous long poem, The Kingis Quair. They had eight children, including the future James II, and Margaret of Scotland, wife of Louis XI of France. After James I was assassinated in 1437, she took over the regency for her son." 

According to Wikipedia: "James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) was nominal King of Scots from April 4, 1406, and reigning King of Scots from May 1424 until February 21, 1437. Born on December 10, 1394, the son of Robert III and Annabella Drummond, he had an eventful childhood. In 1402 his elder brother, David, starved to death in prison at Falkland in Fife." 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Joan Beaufort md. James I, King of Scotland] 

Joan = daughter of 

23 Margaret Holland (1385-1439)  md.  John Beaufort, first Earl of Someset (1371-1410)(His line)

According to Wikipedia: "Margaret Beaufort (née Holland), Countess of Somerset (1385–30 Dec 1439) was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, who was the son of Joan "the Fair Maid of Kent" (granddaughter of Edward I of England, wife of Edward the Black Prince and mother of Richard II of England). Margaret married John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, son of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and his mistress Katherine Swynford. They had six children:" 

According to Wikipedia: "John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373 – March 16, 1410) was the first of the four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress Katherine Swynford, later his wife. Beaufort was born in about 1371 and his surname probably reflects his father's lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, France. The family emblem was the portcullis which is shown on the reverse of a modern British 1p coin. John of Gaunt had his nephew Richard II of England declare the Beaufort children legitimate in 1390, Gaunt married their mother in January 1396. Despite being the grandchildren of Edward III of England, and next in the line of succession after the Lancasters, their father's legitimate children, by agreement they were barred from the succession to the throne." 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Margaret Holland md. John Beaufort, Marquis of Dorsett, Earl of Somerset, Knight of the Garter] 

Margaret = daughter of 

24 Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350 - April 25, 1397), councillor of his half-brother King Richard II md. Alice FitzAlan , daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Eleanor of Lancaster [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–April 25, 1397) was an English nobleman and a councillor of his half-brother Richard II. Thomas was the son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan of Kent. His mother was a daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake. Edmund was in turn a son of Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France, and thus a younger half-brother of Edward II of England. When his father died in 1360 Thomas became Baron Holand. His mother was still Countess of Kent in her own right. At sixteen, in 1366, Holland was appointed captain of the English forces in Aquitaine. He fought in various campaigns over the following years, and was made a Knight of the Garter in 1375.
Richard II became king in 1377, and soon Holland acquired great influence over his younger half-brother, which he used for his own enrichment. In 1381 he was created Earl of Kent. ... Holland married Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel, and Eleanor of Lancaster. They had eight children:" 

[Cary-Estes p. 85 Thomas Holand md. Alice FitzAlan, daughter of Richard, Ninth Earl of Arundel] 

Thomas = son of 

25 Joan "the Fair Maid of Kent", granddaughter of Edward I of England, wife of Edward the Black Prince and mother of Richard II of England  md. Thomas Holland, 1st Earl Earl of Kent (c. 1314 - Dec. 26, 1360) military commander during the Hundred Years' War [His line]

According to Wikipedia: "Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent (c. 1314 – 26 December 1360) was an English nobleman and military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
He was from a gentry family in Holland, Lancashire. He was a son of Robert Holland and Maud De La Zouche. In his early military career, he fought in Flanders. He was engaged, in 1340, in the English expedition into Flanders and sent, two years later, with Sir John D'Artevelle to Bayonne, to defend the Gascon frontier against the French. In 1343, he was again on service in France; and, in the following year, had the honour of being chosen one of the founders of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. In 1346, he attended King Edward III into Normandy in the immediate retinue of the Earl of Warwick; and, at the taking of Caen, the Count of Eu and Guînes, Constable of France, and the Count De Tancarville surrendered themselves to him as prisoners. At the Battle of Crécy, he was one of the principal commanders in the van under the Prince of Wales and he, afterwards, served at the Siege of Calais in 1346-7. Around the same time as, or before, his first expedition, he secretly married the 12-year-old Joan of Kent, daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret Wake, granddaughter of Edward I and Marguerite of France. However, during his absence on foreign service, Joan, under pressure from her family, contracted another marriage with William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (of whose household Holland had been seneschal). This second marriage was annulled in 1349, when Joan's previous marriage with Holland was proved to the satisfaction of the papal commissioners. Joan was ordered by the Pope to return to her husband and live with him as his lawful wife; this she did, thus producing 4 children by him."
According to Wikipedia: "Joan, Countess of Kent (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the first Princess of Wales. The French chronicler Froissart called her "the most beautiful woman in all the realm of England, and the most loving." The "fair maid of Kent" appellation does not appear to be contemporary.... Joan was daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, and Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake. Her paternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his second Queen consort Marguerite of France[2]. Her maternal grandparents were John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell and Joan de Fiennes. Her father, Edmund, was a younger half-brother of Edward II of England. Edmund's support of the King placed him in conflict with the Queen, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Edmund was executed after Edward II's deposition, and Joan, her mother and her siblings were placed under house-arrest in Arundel Castle when Joan was only two years old" 

[Cary-Estes p. 84 Joan of Kent md. Thomas Holand][Cary-Estes p. 84 Joan of Kent md. Thomas Holand] 

Joan = daughter of 

26 Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (Plantagenet)  (Aug. 5, 1301 - March 19, 1330 executed for treason) md. Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake, descendant of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (August 5, 1301 – March 19, 1330) was a member of the English Royal Family. He was born at Woodstock in Oxfordshire, the son of King Edward I and his second wife, Queen Marguerite. He was 62 years younger than his father, who died when Edmund of Woodstock was only seven. Reportedly, he enjoyed his father's favour. He was summoned to Parliament by writ of summons on 5 August 1320, by which he is held to have become Baron Woodstock. On 28 July 1321 he was created Earl of Kent. Kent was married to the 3rd Baroness Wake, daughter of the 1st Baron Wake of Liddell by Joan de Fiennes, sometime between October and December in 1325 at Blisworth in Northamptonshire. In 1327, after the execution and forfeiture of the Earl of Arundel, Kent held the castle and honour (land) of Arundel, although he was never formally invested with the titles appropriate to this barony. He was the father of Joan of Kent, through whom the earldom eventually passed into the Holland family. Kent was sentenced to death by Sir Robert de Hauville for treason, having supported his half-brother, the deposed King Edward II, by order of the Regents the Earl of March and Queen Isabella, before the outer walls of Winchester Castle. It was said that he believed Edward II to be still alive and had conspired to rescue him from prison. Such was public hostility to the execution that "he had to wait five hours for an executioner, because nobody wanted to do it", until a convicted murderer offered to do the deed in exchange for a pardon." 

Edmund = son of 

27 King Edward I of England "Longshanks" (June 14, 1229 - July 7, 1307) reigned 1272-1307 md. Marguerite of France (1282 - Feb. 14, 1317), daughter of King Philip III of France md. Maria of Brabant [Her line]
[Overlapping lines.  We are descended from Edward's first wife Eleanor of Castile, as well as from this, his second wife, Marguerite of France]

According to Wikipedia: "Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks,[1] achieved historical fame as the monarch who conquered large parts of Wales and almost succeeded in doing the same to Scotland. However, his death led to his son Edward II taking the throne and ultimately failing in his attempt to subjugate Scotland. Longshanks reigned from 1272 to 1307, ascending the throne of England on 20 November 1272 after the death of his father, King Henry III. His mother was queen consort Eleanor of Provence. As regnal post-nominal numbers were a Norman (as opposed to Anglo-Saxon) custom, Edward Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though he is the fourth King Edward, following Edward the Elder, Edward the Martyr, and Edward the Confessor." 

According to Wikipedia: "Marguerite of France (1282 Paris – 14 February 1317 Marlborough Castle) was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. She was also the second Queen consort of King Edward I of England. She was nicknamed "The Pearl of France"." 

Edward = son of 

28 Henry III, King of England (Plantagenet) (1207-1272) reigned 1216-1272) md. Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223-1291) (daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198-1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1206-1266)) [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Ethelred the Unready. Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor. He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal, but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta[citation needed] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine." 

According to Wikipedia: "Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 26 June 1291) was Queen Consort of King Henry III of England. Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198-1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1206–1266), the daughter of Tomasso, Count of Savoy and his second wife Marguerite of Geneva. All four of their daughters became queens. Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty.[citation needed] Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage. Eleanor was married to Henry III, King of England (1207-1272) on January 14, 1236. She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his impoverished kingdom." 

Henry = son of 

29 John I, "Lackland," King of England (Plantagenet)  [Magna Carta] (1166-1216) reigned 1199-1216) md. Isabella of Angoulême (1187-1246) (daughter of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angouleme) [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "John (24 December 1167 – 19 October 1216)[1][2] reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199, until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (French: Sans Terre) for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France, and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude.[3] He was a Plantagenet or Angevin king. As a historical figure, John is best known for acquiescing to the nobility and signing Magna Carta, a document that limited his power and that is popularly regarded as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy. He has often appeared in historical fiction, particularly as an enemy of Robin Hood." 

According to Wikipedia: "Isabella of Angoulême (Fr. Isabelle d'Angoulême ; (1188[1] – May 31, 1246) was Countess of Angoulême and queen consort of England. She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angoulême, by Alix de Courtenay. Her paternal grandparents were William V Taillefer, Count of Angouleme and Marguerite de Turenne. Her maternal grandparents were Pierre de Courtenay and Elizabeth de Courtenay. Her maternal great-grandfather was King Louis VI of France. She became Countess of Angoulême in her own right in 1202, by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on August 24, 1200, at Bordeaux, a year after he annulled his first marriage to Isabel of Gloucester. At the time of this marriage Isabella was aged about twelve, and her beauty was renowned; she is sometimes called the "Helen" of the Middle Ages by historians. It could not be said to have been a successful marriage, as Isabella was much younger than her husband and had a fiery character to match his. Before their marriage, she had been betrothed to Hugh le Brun, Count of Lusignan[2], son of the then Count of La Marche. As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all his French lands, and armed conflict ensued." 

John = son of 

30 Henry II, King of England (Plantagenet) (1133-1189) reigned 1154-1189) md. Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) (daughter of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, and duchess, Aenor de Châtellerault)Crusader [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Henry II of England (called "Curtmantle"; 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England and was the great-grandson of William the Conqueror. Henry II was born in Le Mans, France, on 5 March 1133, the first day of the traditional year. His father, Geoffrey V of Anjou (Geoffrey Plantagenet), was Count of Anjou and Count of Maine. His mother, Empress Matilda, was a claimant to the English throne as the daughter of Henry I (1100–1135), son of William, Duke of Normandy. He spent his childhood in his father's land of Anjou. At the age of nine, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester took him to England where he received education from Master Matthew at Bristol. On 18 May 1152, at Bordeaux Cathedral, at the age of 19, Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine. The wedding was "without the pomp or ceremony that befitted their rank," partly because only two months previously Eleanor's marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Their relationship, always stormy, eventually died: After Eleanor encouraged her children to rebel against their father in 1173, Henry had her placed under house-arrest, where she remained for fifteen years. Henry and Eleanor had eight children, William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joan. William died in infancy. As a result Henry was crowned as joint king when he came of age. However, because he was never King in his own right, he is known as "Henry the Young King", not Henry III. In theory, Henry would have inherited the throne from his father, Richard his mother's possessions, Geoffrey would have Brittany and John would be Lord of Ireland. However, fate would ultimately decide much differently." 

According to Wikipedia: "Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. Eleanor was Queen consort of both Louis VII of France and Henry II of England in turn, and the mother of two kings of England, Richard I and John. She is well known for her participation in the Second Crusade.... Eleanor of Aquitaine took up the crusade during a sermon preached by Bernard of Clairvaux. She was followed by some of her royal ladies-in-waiting as well as 300 non-noble vassals. She insisted on taking part in the Crusades as the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. The story that she and her ladies dressed as Amazons is disputed by serious historians; however, her testimonial launch of the Second Crusade from Vézelay, the rumored location of Mary Magdalene´s burial, dramatically emphasized the role of women in the campaign. The Crusade itself achieved little. Louis was a weak and ineffectual military leader with no concept of maintaining troop discipline or morale, or of making informed and logical tactical decisions. In eastern Europe, the French army was at times hindered by Manuel I Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, who feared that it would jeopardize the tenuous safety of his empire; however, during their 3-week stay at Constantinople, Louis was fêted and Eleanor was much admired. She is compared with Penthesilea, mythical queen of the Amazons, by the Greek historian Nicetas Choniates; he adds that she gained the epithet chrysopous (golden-foot) from the cloth of gold that decorated and fringed her robe. Louis and Eleanor stayed in the Philopation palace, just outside the city walls. From the moment the Crusaders entered Asia Minor, the Crusade went badly. The King and Queen were optimistic — the Byzantine Emperor had told them that the German Emperor Conrad had won a great victory against a Turkish army (where in fact the German army had been massacred), and the company was still eating well. However, whilst camping near Nicea, the remnants of the German army, including a dazed and sick Emperor Conrad, began to straggle into the French camp, bringing news of their disaster. The French, with what remained of the Germans, then began to march in increasingly disorganized fashion, towards Antioch. Their spirits were buoyed on Christmas Eve — when they chose to camp in the lush Dercervian valley near Ephesus, they were ambushed by a Turkish detachment; the French proceeded to slaughter this detachment and appropriate their camp. Louis then decided to directly cross the Phrygian mountains, in the hope of speeding his approach to take refuge with Eleanor's uncle Raymond in Antioch. As they ascended the mountains, however, the army and the King and Queen were left horrified by the unburied corpses of the previously slaughtered German army. On the day set for the crossing of Mount Cadmos, Louis chose to take charge of the rear of the column, where the unarmed pilgrims and the baggage trains marched. The vanguard, with which Queen Eleanor marched, was commanded by her Aquitainian vassal, Geoffrey de Rancon; this, being unencumbered by baggage, managed to reach the summit of Cadmos, where de Rancon had been ordered to make camp for the night. De Rancon however chose to march further, deciding in concert with the Count of Maurienne (Louis´ uncle) that a nearby plateau would make a better camp: such disobedience was reportedly common in the army, due to the lack of command from the King. Accordingly, by midafternoon, the rear of the column — believing the day's march to be nearly at an end — was dawdling; this resulted in the army becoming divided, with some having already crossed the summit and others still approaching it. It was at this point that the Turks, who had been following and feinting for many days, seized their opportunity and attacked those who had not yet crossed the summit. The Turks, having seized the summit of the mountain, and the French (both soldiers and pilgrims) having been taken by surprise, there was little hope of escape: those who tried were caught and killed, and many men, horses and baggage were cast into the canyon below the ridge. William of Tyre placed the blame for this disaster firmly on the baggage — which was considered to have belonged largely to the women. The King, ironically, was saved by his lack of authority — having scorned a King's apparel in favour of a simple solder's tunic, he escaped notice (unlike his bodyguards, whose skulls were brutally smashed and limbs severed). He reportedly "nimbly and bravely scaled a rock by making use of some tree roots which God had provided for his safety," and managed to survive the attack. Others were not so fortunate: "No aid came from Heaven, except that night fell." The official scapegoat for the disaster was Geoffrey de Rancon, who had made the decision to continue, and it was suggested that he be hanged (a suggestion which the King ignored). Since he was Eleanor's vassal, many believed that it was she who had been ultimately responsible for the change in plan, and thus the massacre. This did nothing for her popularity in Christendom — as did the blame affixed to her baggage, and the fact that her Aquitainian soldiers had marched at the front, and thus were not involved in the fight. Eleanor's reputation was further sullied by her supposed affair with her uncle Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch. While in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there, which were the beginnings of what would become admiralty law. She introduced those conventions in her own lands, on the island of Oleron in 1160 and later in England as well. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands....Upon Henry's death on July 6, 1189, just days after suffering an injury from a jousting match, Richard was his undisputed heir. One of his first acts as king was to send William the Marshal to England with orders to release Eleanor from prison, but her custodians had already released her. [9] Eleanor rode to Westminster and received the oaths of fealty from many lords and prelates on behalf of the King. She ruled England in Richard's name, signing herself as 'Eleanor, by the grace of God, Queen of England'. On August 13, 1189, Richard sailed from Barfleur to Portsmouth, and was received with enthusiasm. She ruled England as regent while Richard went off on the Third Crusade. She personally negotiated his ransom by going to Germany." 

Henry = son of 

31 Empress Matilda (1102-1110), briefly (contested) the first female ruler of England in 1141 (widow of Henry V Holy Roman Emperor) md. Geoffrey V Count of Anjou and Maine by inheritance, and Duke of Normandy by conquest 1144 the Handsome (Plantagenet) (Aug. 24, 1113 - Sept. 7 1151)[His line] .

According to Wikipedia: "Empress Matilda (sometimes Maud or Maude; later Countess of Anjou and Lady of the English; 7 February 1102 – 10 September 1167) was the daughter and dispossessed heir of Henry I of England. She was married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, and then to Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, by whom she became the mother of Henry II of England. Matilda was the first female ruler, although uncrowned and for a brief time, of the Kingdom of England. Her failure to secure that rule meant that her temporary and disputed period of reign in 1141 was extremely brief. She is often excluded from lists of English monarchs and even the official British monarchy website excludes her, listing Stephen of England as king from 1135-1154." 

According to Wikipedia: "Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French: le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England, Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle, who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname. Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche, heiress of Elias I of Maine. Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito. On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England, by his first wife, Edith of Scotland and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him. The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character." 

Matilda = daughter of 

32 Henry I, King of England  "Beauclerc" (1068/1069-1135) reigned 1100-1135) md. Matilda of Scotland AKA Edith, (c. 1080-1118) (the daughter of Malcolm III King of Scotland, who was the son of Duncan I, King of Scotland, who was murdered by Macbeth) [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the rudimentary administrative and legislative machinery of the time. Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the King to law. The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy." 

According to Wikipedia: "Matilda of Scotland[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 – 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I. Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret. She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening — the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother. When she was about six years old, Matilda and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey, where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton, Matilda was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey, and Alan Rufus, Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left." 

Henry = son of 

33 Matilda of Flanders  (c. 1031-1083)  md. 1053William the Conqueror, King of England (1027-1087) reigned 1066-1087 [His line]

According to Wikipedia: "Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror. She was the daughter of count Baldwin V of Flanders, and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France. At 4'2" (127 cm) tall, Matilda was Britain's smallest adult queen, according to the Guinness Book of Records. According to legend, Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse by her long braids, threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version of the story states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense at this but, before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter. [1] by deciding to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053....When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him." 

According to Wikipedia: "William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), better known as William the Conqueror (French: Guillaume le Conquérant), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. To claim the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest. His reign, which brought Norman culture to England, had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages. In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes to the vocabulary of the English language, and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England. As Duke of Normandy, he is known as William II. He was also, particularly before the conquest, known as William the Bastard.... William was born in Falaise, Normandy, the illegitimate and only son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy, who named him as heir to Normandy. His mother, Herleva (among other names), who later had two sons to another father, was the daughter of Fulbert, most probably a local tanner. William had a sister, Adelaide of Normandy, another child of Robert and Herleva. Later in life the enemies of William are said to have commented derisively that William stank like a tannery, and the residents of besieged Alençon hung skins from the city walls to taunt him. William is believed to have been born in either 1027 or 1028, and more likely in the autumn of the latter year. He was born the grandnephew of Queen Emma of Normandy, wife of King Ethelred the Unready and later of King Canute the Great." 

Matilda = daughter of 

34 Baldwin V Count of Flanders (d. Sept. 1, 1067)md. Adela Capet (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II "The Pious", King of  France [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Baldwin V of Flanders (died September 1, 1067) was Count of Flanders from 1036 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin IV of Flanders, who died in 1035. He, in turn, was a descendant of Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great, King of England. In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death. During a long war (1046–1056) as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut. However, when the latter died in 1049 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou, mother and regent of Henry IV. From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics." 

According to Wikipedia: "Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders[1], known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (1009 – 8 January 1079, Messines) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles. As dowry to her future husband, she received from his father the title of Countess of Corbie." 

Baldwin = son of 

35 Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders "the Bearded" (980-1035) md. Ogive of Luxembourg 

According to Wikipedia: "Baldwin IV of Flanders (980–May 30, 1035[1]), known as the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 988 until his death. He was the son of Arnulf II of Flanders. His mother was Rozala of Lombardy. He was a seventh-generation descendant of Charlemagne through his father and an eighth-generation one through his mother." 

Baldwin = son of 

36 Arnulf II Count of Falnders (960 or 961-988) of Flanders ) md. Rozala of Lombardy
[Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Arnulf II of Flanders (960 or 961 – March 30, 988) was Count of Flanders from 965 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin III of Flanders and Matilda of Burgundy. Baldwin III died in 962, when Arnulf was just an infant, and with Arnulf's grandfather count, Arnulf I, still alive. When Arnulf I died three years later (965), the regency was held by their kinsman Baldwin Balso. By the time Arnulf attained his majority in 976, Flanders had lost some of the southern territory acquired by Arnulf I. The latter had given some parts of Picardy to King Lothar of France to help assure his grandson's succession, and gave Boulogne as a fief to another relative. Then early in Arnulf's minority Lothar had taken Ponthieu and given it to Hugh Capet, and the first counts of Guînes had established themselves.
According to Wikipedia: "Rozala of Italy (also known as Rozala of Provence, or Susannah of Italy) (c. 937–7 February 1003) was the daughter of King Berenger II of Italy. By her first marriage, she was Countess of Flanders; by her second, she was Queen of France. She was a seventh generation descendant of Charlemagne.Her first marriage was to Count Arnulf II of Flanders (d. 988). They had three children: Baldwin IV of Flanders (980–1035); Eudes of Cambrai; and Mathilda (d. 995). On her husband's death, she acted as regent for her young son. In 988 or 989, despite being over fifty years old, she married Robert the Pious, the Rex Filius of France; he was not particularly enthusiastic about the marriage, which had been arranged by his father, King Hugh of France. She brought her husband Montreuil and Ponthieu as a dowry. Upon her marriage, she took the name of Susannah. When her father-in-law died, however, Robert repudiated her, desiring to marry Bertha of Burgundy in her place. Rozala then retired to Flanders, where she died and was buried. Robert retained control of her dowry." 

Alnulf = son of 

37 Baldwin III of Flanders (940-962) md. Matilda of Burgundy 

According to Wikipedia: "Baldwin III of Flanders The Young (940 – January 1, 962) was count of Flanders together with his father Arnulf I. He died before his father and was succeeded by his infant son Arnulf II, with his father acting as regent until his own death.
Arnulf I had made Baldwin co-ruler in 958. During his short rule, Baldwin established the weaving and fulling industry in Ghent thus laying the basis for the economical importance of the county in the centuries to come. In 961 Baldwin married Mathilde Billung of Saxony, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony, by whom he had a son and heir Arnulf II." 

Baldwin = son of 

38 Arnulf I the Great, Count of Flanders (890-965) 

According to Wikipedia: "Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 – March 28, 965), called the Great, was the third count of Flanders. Arnulf was the son of count Baldwin II of Flanders and Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great. He was named after his distant ancestor, Saint Arnulf of Metz; this was intended to emphasize his family's descent from the Carolingian dynasty.  Arnulf greatly expanded Flemish rule to the south, taking all or part of Artois, Ponthieu, Amiens, and Ostravent. He exploited the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Robert I of France, and later those between Louis IV and his barons. In his southern expansion Arnulf inevitably had conflict with the Normans, who were trying to secure their northern frontier. This led to the 943 murder of the Duke of Normandy, William Longsword, at the hands of Arnulf's men. The Viking threat was receding during the later years of Arnulf's life, and he turned his attentions to the reform of the Flemish government." 

Arnulf = son of 

39 Baldwin II Count of Flanders (875-918) md. Aelfthryth (d. 929), daughter of King Alfred the Great of England[Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Baldwin II (c. 865 – September 10, 918), nicknamed Calvus (the Bald) was the second count of Flanders. He was also hereditary abbot of St. Bertin from 892 till his death. He was the son of Baldwin I of Flanders and Judith, a daughter of Charles the Bald. The early years of Baldwin's rule were marked by a series of devastating Viking raids. Little north of the Somme was untouched. Baldwin recovered, building new fortresses and improving city walls, and taking over abandoned property, so that in the end he held far more territory, and held it more strongly, than had his father. He also took advantage of the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Odo, Count of Paris to take over the Ternois and the Boulonnias. In 884 Baldwin married Ælfthryth (Ælfthryth, Elftrude, Elfrida), a daughter of King Alfred the Great of England. The marriage was motivated by the common Flemish-English opposition to the Vikings, and was the start of an alliance that was a mainstay of Flemish policy for centuries to come. In 900, he tried to curb the power of Archbishop Fulk of Rheims by assassinating him, but he was excommunicated by Pope Benedict IV. He died at Blandinberg and was succeeded by his eldest son Arnulf I of Flanders. His younger son Adalulf was (the first) count of Boulogne. 

According to Wikipedia: "Ælfthryth, also known as Elfrida, (died 929), was the last child of Alfred the Great, the Saxon King of England and his wife Ealhswith. She had four or five siblings, including King Edward the Elder and Ethelfleda. Ælfthryth married Baldwin II (d. 918), Count of Flanders. One of their descendants, Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083), would go on to marry William the Conqueror, therefore starting the Anglo-Norman line of Kings of England. Through her descendant, Henry I of England, she is also a direct ancestor of the current monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Elizabeth II." 

Baldwin = son of 

40 Judith of Flanders (Oct. 844-870) md. Baldwin I of Flanders[His line]

Judith = character in "The Marsh King" by C. Walter Hodges and in "Judiith of France" and "Journey for a Princess" by Margaret C. Leighton. 

According to Wikipedia: "Judith of Flanders (844 – 870) was a daughter of the Frankish king Charles the Bald. Through her marriage to two kings of Wessex she was first a queen, then later through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became Countess of Flanders. Judith was born in October of 844, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, and Ermentrude. Her father gave her in marriage to Ethelwulf, King of Wessex on October 1, 856 at Verberie sur Oise, France. Soon after, Ethelwulf's son Ethelbald forced his father to abdicate. Following Ethelwulf's death on January 13, 858, Ethelbald married his widowed stepmother Judith. However, the marriage was annulled in 860 on the grounds of consanguinity. Judith eloped with Baldwin in January 862. They were likely married at the monastery of Senlis before they eloped. The couple was in hiding from Judith's father, King Charles the Bald, until October after which they went to her uncle Lothair II for protection. From there they fled to Pope Nicholas I. The pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle - which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre. Baldwin was accepted as son-in-law and was given the land directly south of the Scheldt to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became one of the most faithful supporters of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and was for a long time the most powerful principality of France." 

Judith = daughter of 

41 Charles the Bald (June 13, 823 - Oct. 6, 877) Holy Roman Emperor 875-877 md. 842 Ermentrude of Orleans (823-869) [Her line] [another line leading to Charles the Bald]

According to Wikipedia: "Charles the Bald[1] (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II) and King of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of the Emperor Louis the Pious by his second wife Judith." 

According to Wikipedia: "Ermentrude of Orléans (also Hirmentrude or Irmintrud) (September 27, 823 – October 6, 869) was Queen of Franks by her marriage to Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor and King of West Francia. She was the daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans and his wife, Engeltrude." 

Charles = son of 

42 Louis the Pious AKA Louis I, Louis the Fair, Louis the Debonaire (778 - June 20, 840) Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 813-840 md. Judith of Bavaria (805-843) daughter of Count Welf and Hedwig Duchess of Bavaria [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire,[1] was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor (as Louis I) and King of the Franks with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed. During his reign in Aquitaine Louis was charged with the defence of the Empire's southwestern frontier. He reconquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and re-asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 813. As emperor he included his adult sons—Lothair, Pepin, and Louis—in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm between them. The first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement. In the 830s his empire was storn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort." 

According to Wikipedia: "Queen Judith or Iudit (805 - April 19 or 23, 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780 - 826). She became Queen consort of the Franks.
She became the second wife of Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks; they married in Aachen in 819." 

Louis = son of 

43 Charlemagne (747-814) Holy Roman Emperor  md. Hildegarde (758 - 783) [Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Charlemagne (Latin: Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France, Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire. The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I. The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens, who menaced his realm from Spain. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty. Today he is regarded not only as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but also as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity.[1] Pierre Riché reflects ". . . he enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of western Europe."" 

According to Wikipedia: "Hildegard (758-30 April 783) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Emma of Alamannia, daughter of Hnabi, Duke of Alamannia. Hildegard was the second wife of Charlemagne, who married her about 771." 

Charlemagne = son of 

44 Pepin or Pippin AKA Pepin the Younger or Pepin III (714-768), Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Duke of the Franks 741-768), King of the Franks 751-768) md. 744 Bertrada of Laon (720-783) (daughter of Caribert, Count of Laon, who was son of Martin, Count of Laon[her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne. 

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690-724). Pepin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles' son by his second wife, Swanahild (aka Swanhilde), may also have been intended to receive an inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal." 

According to Wikipedia: "Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertha Broadfoot, (720 – July 12, 783) was a Frankish queen. She was born in Laon, in today's Aisne, France, the daughter of Caribert of Laon. She married Pepin the Short, the son of the Frankish Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel, in 740, although the union was not canonically sanctioned until several years later. Eleven years later, in 751, Pepin and Bertrada became King and Queen of the Franks, following Pepin's successful coup against the Frankish Merovingian monarchs. Bertrada and Pepin are known to have had four children, three sons and one daughter: of these, Charles (Charlemagne), Carloman, and Gisela survived to adulthood, whilst Pepin died in infancy. Charlemagne and Carloman would inherit the two halves of their father's kingdom when he died, and Gisela became a nun. Bertrada lived at the court of her elder son Charles, and according to Einhard their relationship was excellent. She recommended he marry his first wife, Desiderata, a daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius, but he soon divorced her. Einhard claims this was the only episode that ever strained relations between mother and son. Bertrada lived with Charlemagne until her death in 783; the king buried her in Saint Denis Basilica with great honors." 

Pepin = son of 

45 Charles "The Hammer" Martel (688-741) Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and King or Duke of the Franks, won the Battle of Tours in 732, halting Muslim expansion in Europe. md. Rotrude of Treve (690-724) (daughter of St. Leutwinus, Count and Bishop of  Treves [her line][another line leading to Charles Martel]

According to Wikipedia: "Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Latin: Carolus Martellus, English: Charles "the Hammer") (ca. 688 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace and ruled the Franks in the name of a titular King. Late in his reign he proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother with the façade of a King) and by any name was de facto ruler of the Frankish Realms. In 739 he was offered an office of Roman consul by the Pope, which he rejected  possibly not to conflict with Theodatus Ursus who already occupied the office by appointment of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian. He expanded his rule over all three of the Frankish kingdoms: Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. Martel was born in Herstal, in present-day Belgium, the illegitimate son of Pippin the Middle and his concubine Alpaida (or Chalpaida). He was described by Louis Gustave and Charles Strauss in their book "Moslem and Frank; or, Charles Martel and the rescue of Europe" as a tall, powerfully built man, who was more agile than his size would lead men to believe. He is best remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, which has traditionally been characterized as an event that halted the Islamic expansionism in Europe that had conquered Iberia."Charles's victory has often been regarded as decisive for world history, since it preserved western Europe from Muslim conquest and Islamization." In addition to being the leader of the army that prevailed at Tours, Charles Martel was a truly giant figure of the Middle Ages. A brilliant general, he is considered the forefather of western heavy cavalry, chivalry, founder of the Carolingian Empire (which was named after him), and a catalyst for the feudal system, which would see Europe through the Middle Ages. Although some recent scholars have suggested he was more of a beneficiary of the feudal system than a knowing agent for social change, others continue to see him as the primary catalyst for the feudal system." 

According to Wikipedia: "Rotrude of Treves (variously spelled Chrotrude, Chrotrud, Rotrude, Chotrude, Chrotude, Chrotrudis), also known as Rotrou of Treves, was born in 690 in Austrasia; died 724, daughter of St. Leutwinus, Bishop of Treves, Bishop of Trier, and Daughter of Chrodobertus II. She married Charles Martel, son of Pepin of Heristal." 

Charles = son of 

46 Pepin of Herstal AKA Pepin II or Pepin the Middle (635-616) Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and of Neustria and Burgundy md. Alpaida 

According to Wikipedia: "Pepin (also Pippin, Pipin, or Peppin) of Herstal (c. 635 – 16 December 714) was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia from 680 to his death and of Neustria and Burgundy from 687 to 695. He was also the first mayor of the palace to "reign" as Duke and Prince of the Franks and he by far overshadowed the Merovingian rois fainéants. Pepin, sometimes called Pepin II and Pepin the Middle was the grandson and namesake of Pepin I the Elder by the marriage of Pepin I's daughter Begga and Ansegisel, son of Arnulf of Metz. That marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin II was probably born in Herstal (Héristal), modern Belgium (where his centre of power lay), whence his byname (sometimes "of Heristal")." 

Pepin = son of 

47 Ansegisel (602 or 610-murdered before 679 or 662)   md. Saint Begga (615-693), daughter of Pepin I the Elder of Landen   (580-640) Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia md. Saint Itta (d. 652) [her line]

[Overlapping lines.  We are also descended from Ansegisel's brother Saint Clodulf AKA Saint Cloud]

According to Wikipedia: "Ansegisel (also Ansgise) (also Ansegus) (alsoAnchises) (c. 602 or 610 – murdered before 679 or 662) was the son of Saint Arnulf, bishop of Metz and his wife Saint Doda. He served King Sigbert III of Austrasia (634-656) as a duke (Latin dux, a military leader) and domesticus. He was killed sometime before 679, slain in a feud by his enemy Gundewin." 

According to Wikipedia: "Saint Begga (also Begue) (615 – December 17, 693) was the daughter of Pepin of Landen, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, and his wife Itta. On the death of her husband, she took the veil, founded several churches, and built a convent at Andenne on the Meuse River (Andenne sur Meuse) where she spent the rest of her days as abbess. Some hold that the Beguine movement which came to light in the 12th century was actually founded by St. Begga; and the church in the beguinage of Lier, Belgium, has a statue of St. Begga standing above the inscription: St. Begga, our foundress. The Lier beguinage dates from the 13th century. More than likely, however, the Beguines derived their name from that of the priest Lambert le Begue, under whose protection the witness and ministry of the Beguines flourished." 

Ansegisel = son of 

48 Saint  Doda (b. around 584) md. around 596 Saint Arnulf of Metz (582 - 640) 

According to Wikipedia: "Saint Arnulf of Metz was born of an important Frankish family at an uncertain date around 582. In his younger years he was called to the Merovingian court to serve king Theudebert II (595-612) of Austrasia and as dux at the Schelde. Later he became bishop of Metz. During his life he was attracted to religious life and he retired as a monk. After his death he was canonized as a saint. In the French language he is also known as Arnoul or Arnoulf." 

According to Wikipedia: "Dode or Doda, also called Dode of Metz, Dode of Old Saxony or Doda the Saxon, who became a nun in 612 at Treves becoming called also Clothilde of Treves, born ca 584, married ca 596 to Arnulf of Metz." 

Doda = daughter of 

49 Arnoald (c. 560 - c. 611) md. Oda 

According to Wikipedia: "Arnoald, also called Arnoldus or Arnual (ca 560 – ca 611), was a Bishop of Metz between 601 and 609 or 611, the successor of Agilulf, and a Margrave of Schelde. He was the son of Ansbertus, a Senator, and wife Blithilde. Married before 584 to Oda (?), born ca 564" 

Arnoald = son of 

50 Ansbertus, a Senator (505 or c. 535 - 570 or 611) md. Blithilde (c. 538 - c. 603), daughter of Chlothar I, King of the Franks (497-561) md. Waldrada, a Lombard princess[Her line]

According to Wikipedia: "Ansbertus (505 or ca 535 – 570 or 611), "Ansbertus nobilissimus genuit Arnoldum ex Blitchildi filia Clotharii regis Francorum, et Feriolum et Modericum et Tarsiciam.", was a Gallo-Roman Senator. He was the son of Ferreolus, Senator of Narbonne (b. 470) and his wife Saint Dode. He was the great-grandson of Tonantius Ferreolus and wife Papianilla. He married Blithilde, also called Bilichilde (ca 538 – ca 603), "Blithilde filia Clotharii regis Francorum." or "filiam Hlotharii regis Francorum.", daughter of Chlothar I, King of the Franks, and wife Waldrada, a Lombard princess, before 555" 

Ansbertus = son of 

51 Ferreolus, Senator of Narbonne (b. 470 or c. 475) md. Saint Dode, daughter of King Chloderic of the Ripuarian Franks (d. 509) King Cloderic was son of Sigobert the Lame (d. c. 509) king of the Franks in the area of Zulpich and Cologne

According to Wikipedia: "Ferreolus, also called Ferreolus of Rodez (b. 470 or ca 475) was a Senator of Narbonne, then Narbo, who lived in Rodez and was also a Senator there. He was the son of Tonantius Ferreolus and wife Industria. Married firstly ca 531 to a Princess of the Salian Franks, born before 511, daughter of Chlodwig I, without issue, he later married secondly Saint Dode, born before 509, daughter of King Chloderic of the Ripuarian Franks" 

According to Wikipedia: "Saint Dode (born before 509) was an Abbess of Saint Pierre de Reims and a French Saint whose Feast Day is April 24. She was the daughter of Chloderic, King of the Franks, and the sister of Munderic. She married ca 531 Ferreolus, a Senator in Narbonne, who lived at Rodez and was also a Senator there." 

According to Wikipedia: "Chlodoric (or Chloderic) the Parricide (died c. 509) murdered his own father, Sigobert the Lame, in order to take his kingdom. Chlodoric acted upon the instigation of Clovis I a rival king of the Salian Franks. After Sigobert's death Clovis then accused Chlodoric of the murder and had him killed in his turn for the crime. In this way Clovis became king of Sigobert's and Chlodoric's people. Gregory suggest that Chlodoric was murdered in the same campaign that also killed the Frankish King Chararic. Before, Clovis had killed King Ragnachar and his brothers. After all these murders Gregory tells us that Clovis lamented that he had left no family anymore, implying that amongst his own casualties were close relatives." 

Ferreolus = son of 

52 Tonantiius Ferreolus (440 or 450 - 511 of after 517) Roman Senator who lived in Narbonne md. before 475 Industria of Narbonne (450 or 465), daughter of Flavius Probus, Roman Senator md. Eulalia 

According to Wikipedia: "Tonantius Ferreolus (also called Tonance Ferréol) (440 or say 450 – 511 or after 517), Vir clarissimus between 507 and 511, was a Roman Senator who lived in Narbonne, then Narbo, and a Senator of Narbonne between 479 and 517. He was also present and seen at Rome in 469 and 475 and was known to be a friend and relative of Sidonius Apollinaris. He was the son of Tonantius Ferreolus and wife Papianilla. His wife's name was thought to have been lost to the ages but, according to the reference below she was Industria of Narbonne, then Narbo, born ca 450 or 465, whom he married before 475, daughter of Flavius Probus, Roman Senator, and wife Eulalia (?) (a german cousin of Sidonius Apollinaris). Tonantius Ferreolus was a witness when Sidonius Apollinaris, then bishop of Clermont, between 461 and 467, sent a letter to his friend, Donidius, describing a visit he made, a "most delightful time in the most beautiful country in the company of Tonantius Ferreolus (the elder) and Apollinaris, the most charming hosts in the world". He was on the estates of his father when Sidonius Appolinarius visited between 461 and 467. As Sidonius relates, "at Prusianum, as the other (estate) is called, (the young) Tonantius and his brothers turned out of their beds for us because we could not be always dragging our gear about: they are surely the elect among the nobles of our own age". He was visited by his cousin St. Apollinaris of Valence in 517." 

Tonantius Ferreolus = son of 

53 Tonantius Ferreolus (405 or c. 420 - 475) Praetorian Prefect of Gaul) md. Papianilla (b. around 415) niece of Emperor Avitus (c. 385 - after Oct. 17, 456 or in 457), reigned July 9, 455 - Oct. 17, 456; 

According to Wikiipedia: "Tonantius Ferreolus (405 or ca 420 – 475), was the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul (praefectus praetorio Galliarum) from 451. He was either "personally related to" or "connected through (...) relatives" with Sidonius Apollinaris, and was associated with Thaumastus in the impeachment of Arvandus. He was the son of Ferreolus, born say 390, and wife Syagria, clarissima femina (?), born say 390, and thus maternal grandson of Flavius Afranius Syagrius, Consul in 382. He married Papianilla, clarissima femina, born ca 415, a niece of Emperor Avitus and the first cousin of another Papianilla, wife of Sidonius Apollinaris, and they had many children, among whom Tonantius Ferreolus. She was a partner who shared his troubles, according to Sidonius." 

Tonantius = son of 

54 Ferreolus (b. 390) md. Syagria (b. 390) 

Syagria = daughter of 

55 Flaviius Afrius Syagrius, Consul in 382 

According to Wikipedia: "Flavius Afranius Syagrius (b. ca 345) was a Roman politician and administrator and was the father of Syagria, the mother of Tonantius Ferreolus. He was of paternal Roman descent as a Gallo-Roman Senator. He became proconsul of Africa in 379, praefectus Urbis Romae in 381, praefectus praetorio Italiae in 382 and was consul with Flavius Claudius Antonius in 382. Flavius was his given name, Afranius was the family name, and Syagrius was a cognomen meaning "wild boar." He was buried in Lyon, France, then Lugdunum, beneath an imposing monument at the city gate, "not quite a full bowshot" from the church, and a statue of him was erected in the city. He was the father of Syagria, clarissima femina (?), born c. 390, married to Ferreolus, born c. 390, and thus maternal grandfather of Tonantius Ferreolus. He was also most likely the ancestor of Afranius Aegidius and his son Afranius Syagrius, as well as a relative of his predecessor Flavius Syagrius, Consul in 381, who was a friend and correspondent of Symmachus, the noted orator and vigorous defender of the pagan religion. Christian Settipani's suggestion for a Western European line of descent from antiquity makes Flavius Afranius Syagrius the earliest known ancestor of any of the royal houses of Europe. For the proposed genealogical link, see descent of Elizabeth II from the Romans."



This site is published by B&R Samizdat Express, 33 Gould St., West Roxbury, MA 02132. 617-469-2269 seltzer@samizdat.com

Book collections on CD and DVD. A library for the price of a book.
Limited time offer: 2 for the price of 1

Return to B&R Samizdat Express

Google
  Websamizdat.com



Internet Business Showcase: